Pregnancy in the dog lasts for an average of 63 days (9 weeks). This is generally taken from the time of the last mating and can vary in length (i.e.some bitches may go up to 10 weeks)
Confirmation of pregnancy can be achieved by:
- Palpation of the abdomen, an easy, quick and inexpensive method performed by the Veterinarian, but is unreliable in early stages
- Ultrasound of the abdomen is easy and quick which can reliably detect pregnancy 24-28 days after breeding
- X-ray of the abdomen 40-45 days after breeding to determine the number of pups
The bitch’s body temperature will drop by 1.1 – 1.7°C, 6 to 18 hours before giving birth, so measuring the rectal temperature is a reliable way to determine the onset of the labor. Gain a baseline temperature by measuring the temperature 2 to 3 times daily during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Behavioural changes will also be a clue that labor is close – panting, nesting and restlessness are the most common.
Stages of labor
- Stage 1 the bitch will exhibit nesting behaviour (looking for somewhere to have her pups), restlessness, shivering and will often go off their food. The most characteristic sign is panting. This stage will last between 6-12 hours
- Stage 2 there is obvious abdominal contractions followed by delivery of the puppy. All the puppies are usually born within 3 to 6 hours
- Stage 3 involves passage of the placenta or membranes. This usually takes between 5-15 minutes after the birth of each puppy. After the birth of each puppy, the bitch should chew through the umbilical cord and lick the puppy clean to remove the membranes. This is an important bonding action between the bitch and the pup. If the bitch doesn’t clean the membranes from the pup’s face, the owner should (but don’t jump in before the bitch has a chance to do it!)
When to be concerned
Illness in a bitch ready to give birth, or after giving birth Bitches that have previously had difficulty giving birth More than 24 hours since rectal temperature drop More than 12 hours of stage 1 behaviour If partially delivered pup present for more than 10-15 min (i.e. stuck) If more than 3 hours of abdominal contraction with no pup More than 1 hour of abdominal contraction between pups Constant, unrelenting, unproductive straining for 20-30min
The puppy’s most important requirement is warmth. The 2nd most important requirement is colostrum from the bitch. Monitor all the puppies to ensure they each find a nipple to nurse. If a puppy doesn’t find the nipple, give the puppy guidance.
Note: During pregnancy and raising puppies, the diet of the bitch is critical, as there will be huge strains on her energy and calcium reserves. Feed the bitch a high quality commercial puppy food, from mid-pregnancy through to weaning the pups.
Puppies can be weaned from 3 to 6 weeks of age by gradually introducing solid food. We recommend that you use a good quality ‘complete and balanced’ diet such as Hills Science Diet. A ‘complete’ food is one that gives your puppy all the nutrition it needs so that you do not need to feed any other type of food. A ‘balanced’ diet means that all of the ingredients are in the proper ratios for your puppy’s health. The benefits of a good quality diet are faeces that are normal consistency and reduced amount compared to the cheaper brands. Puppies should never be fed a meat only diet as this can cause serious nutritional disease. We recommend that you feed your puppy twice daily until 6 months age.
Paralysis ticks are commonly found in the areas surrounding Bega. These can cause a serious paralysis that can lead to death in severe cases. Some topspot formulations such as Frontline Plus and Advantix protect against ticks but ONLY when applied every 2 weeks. Frontline Spray also prevents ticks and can be applied every 3 weeks. Alternatives are Tick collars and Proban tablets which need to be given every 2 days.
It is important to remember that none of these preventatives are 100% effective and you should check your dog’s coat for ticks every day. It is important to NEVER apply dog tick products to your cat as many can cause serious and sometimes fatal reactions.
Puppies are susceptible to whipworm, roundworm, hookworm and tapeworm infections. Intestinal worms can cause diarrhoea, vomiting and poor growth. They can become infected through contact with other dogs, the environment generally or, most commonly in puppies, from their mother at birth. We recommend using a good quality allwormer product such as Drontal.
Puppies should be treated:
- Every 2 weeks until 3 mtgs age
- Then monthly until 6 months age
- Then every 3 months for life
Intestinal worms can also infect humans especially children so we strongly recommend ongoing intestinal worm control.
Vaccination is an important way of preventing disease in your puppy. We recommend that all dogs are vaccinated against parvovirus, distemper and infectious hepatitis. These are all potentially fatal diseases. We also recommend vaccinating against two of the organisms involved in canine cough – Parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica. These diseases are all covered in the C5 vaccination.
Puppies require an initial course of 3 injections:
- Initial puppy C3 (Due at 8 weeks)
- Second puppy C5 (Due at 12 weeks)
- Third puppy C5 (Due at 16 weeks)
After the initial course, we recommend that your puppy comes in for an annual booster vaccination to ensure ongoing protection.
Heartworm is an internal parasite that invades the heart of both dogs and cats. It is spread by mosquitoes and is better known for causing serious disease in dogs. Heartworm has been found to infect cats but the ability to cause disease in cats is not fully understood. Heartworm can be prevented through monthly top spots such as Revolution and Advocate. Heartworm is not common in the Bega region but becomes increasingly present as you travel north along the coast.
There are a number of ways of preventing heartworm including monthly tablets, monthly topspot formulations and a yearly injection. Please talk to our staff for more information.
Tick control is difficult in cats as many of the products cause toxicity. Frontline Spray is the only product registered and tested for preventing ticks in cats and should be applied every 3 weeks. It is important to NEVER apply any tick product that is not specifically for cats as these may cause serious fatal reactions.
There are many products currently available on the market. Products such as Frontline Plus and Advantage cover fleas only when applied monthly. Other products such as Revolution and Advocate cover fleas as well as some species of mites and intestinal worms. Our staff are happy to work out the best product for your situation.
We strongly recommend desexing all animals that are not required for breeding. The main benefits of desexing are preventing unwanted litters, reducing undesirable behaviours such as urine spraying and roaming in males and reducing the risk of health problems later in life. These health problems include mammary tumours, ovarian and uterine tumours and uterine infections. The health benefits of desexing are maximised if undertaken before females first oestrus
We recommend desexing at 5-6 months age.